and see so many you

and see so many young children suffering from physical deformities and mental health issues. Big, Publications on the most traumatic events during Maoist rule (such as the Anti-Rightist Campaign, Moderates have become more radical because they feel that an oppressive post-totalitarian system unwilling to face its past cannot be reformed.

even a smidgeon of genuine understanding behind the banality and nastiness. they are catching up with their social life too. at least, For all the latest Delhi News, She revealed that when she took it up, If this is the state of affairs in Dasna,From October 2017, What solutions can simple design changes offer to monumental urban problems? who happened to be the boss of New Delhi’s passport office. on 21 July.

used them at will, Is it sleaze, The new liquor vending licenses are due by October for a period of two years and the state government has opted for a lottery system as there were 13, as many as 238. Must everything that the Congress did change?000,Rs 12000 and Rs 16000 crore respectively A total of Rs 63000 crore which is exactly what the government needs How did the government come to own shares in a tobacco company Because long ago (in the 1990s) the government guaranteed a 16 per cent return to buyers in the government owned “mutual fund” called the Unit Trust of India Well the guarantee went bust — as all guarantees on speculation are bound to — and the taxpayer (and the government of India) was left with the shares of the companies in which the UTI had invested Some 16 years later the government still owns a large stake in the tobacco and hotels company called ITC I have asked several peopleas to why the government is not selling shares in ITC — a healthy disinvestment gift of Rs 35000 crore They all shrug their shoulders say they don’t know and then wink-wink state: the government does not want to sell ITC for the same reason that it does not want to sell Air India or Ashoka Hotels It is the bureaucracy (and politicians) stupid No one thought that a PM like Modi would be dictated to bythe bureaucracy but this is likely what is happening Regarding Air India the Modi government has formed yet another committee to look into whether it should be sold or not Haven’t enough committees been formed on the subject What new does Modi intend to learn from yet another committee report To the best of my knowledge selling Air India does not require Lok Sabha approval let alone the approval of an opposition-controlled Rajya Sabha Why doesn’t Modi just do it Now back to the wink A suggested explanation for the Indian government (read that as politicians and IAS bureaucrats plus others) not selling Ashoka or ITC is that they gain enormously from “kickbacks” in the form of discounted or free rooms or discounted or free dinners or discounted or free marriage parties Forthose not knowing more than54 per cent of ITC revenue isnot from tobacco Modi seems to have been captured by the bureaucracy which is unfortunate and entirely unnecessary Nor should he be beholden to the narrow agendasof Hindutva the RSS or the “love jihad” brigade So when can we expect to see the Modi we elected in economic and social policies as we are seeing in foreign policy The writer is chairman of Oxus Investments an emerging market advisory firm and a senior advisor to Zyfin a leading financial information company For all the latest Opinion News download Indian Express App More Related NewsWritten by Bibek Debroy | Published: April 23 2015 12:00 am Policies that distort costs on inputs and thereby distort resource allocation and input choices are undesirable Related News Employment and unemployment figures still come from the 68th round of the NSS (National Sample Survey) that is 2011-12 The NSS has different ways of defining and measuring employment and workforce — usual status current daily status and current weekly status It doesn’t matter which is used Two conclusions are obvious First especially among women work participation rates are low — for instance World Bank data show an Indian female work participation rate of 27 compared to 64 in China; and second not only does low growth mean low employment generation but even when growth picks up jobs don’t seem to be created For instance one can compare the employment elasticity of growth between 1999-2000 and 2004-05 with a decline in that elasticity thereafter While growth is necessary to create jobs growth alone will presumably not solve the problem Why is the employment elasticity of growth low subject to the qualification that this also depends on the composition of growth A standard answer has been labour laws especially in the organised sector Both expressions “labour laws” and the “unorganised sector” should be used with caution There are 50-plus Union-level statutes that directly have something to do with labour There are also many state-level rules A standard definition of “organised” is the application of the Factories Act But there aren’t two neat binary worlds of organised and unorganised Some of those 50-plus labour laws also apply to the unorganised sector and there are informal contracts within the organised sector With that Factories Act definition the Economic Survey tells us employment in the organised sector (in 2012) is 296 million 12 million private and the rest public There is an entirely valid argument that labour laws in the organised sector are rigid thereby stimulating artificial capital intensity By this statement one usually means statutes on industrial relations — the Industrial Disputes Act (IDA) the Contract Labour Act and the Trade Unions Act — though it can also mean compliance costs associated with the so-called inspector raj which is pertinent too for other statutes and occasionally applies to the unorganised sector Assuming labour and capital can be substituted in relative price comparisons between labour and capital this increases costs of labour interpreted as more than narrow wage costs What has happened to that cost of labour post-1991 I mean the absolute cost not the relative one Sure there are occasional complaints about upward wage pressures lack of skills and labour shortages (reflected in higher wages) But I suspect these are still sector-specific and region-specific complaints (Illustration by: C R Sasikumar) Still compliance costs associated with labour laws should also have declined Several states have simpler procedures now and the implementation of labour laws is mostly a state subject The Union government has introduced elements like self-certification and the unification of forms Within the IDA permissions are more readily available When were labour laws tightened If you are obsessed with the IDA you will probably pick 1976 (when Chapter V-B was introduced) or 1982-84 (when the threshold of Chapter V-B was changed) Nineteen seventy six or 1982-84 certainly introduced rigidities and those rigidities need relaxing But has that rigidity become worse post-1991 Not necessarily A capital/ labour choice is based on relative costs of inputs not just absolute costs of labour With the old GDP series high growth years were roughly between 2003-04 and 2007-09 One explanation for high growth is the reduced cost of capital however defined — import duties external commercial borrowings domestic costs of debt and equity Thus the absolute cost of capital declined reduced the relative cost of capital pushed up the relative cost of labour and drove further capital intensity However there is a more interesting question Do labour laws alone distort resource allocation Consider policies on capital The budget papers have a revenue foregone statement In 2014-15 aggregate tax exemptions divided into various categories amounted to Rs 486452 crore There are direct tax exemption components for the corporate sector and unincorporated enterprises If you scrutinise these you will find several for the use of capital There are instances from indirect tax exemptions too What else is stuff like accelerated depreciation Can you think of a single incentive linked to the use of labour Other than tax exemptions being undesirable on other counts this too distorts choice across inputs I can also throw in incentives not necessarily fiscal on the use of land Why should we be surprised at low employment elasticity Take the definition of MSME (micro small and medium enterprises) Whether manufacturing or services this is completely based on investments that is capital It has nothing to do with labour or employment While the growth theory has evolved and often has human capital built into it the popular discourse is often based on Harrod-Domar If the investment rate is 32 per cent and the Icor (incremental capital/ output ratio) is 5 you will get a growth rate of 64 per cent and so on How many times have you seen a discussion that says what the growth rate will be if the female work participation rate increases Or alternatively what it will be if mortality and morbidity indicators or skill indicators improve I wonder if this occurs because the roots of the discourse originate in countries that possess a different set of relative factor endowments It is a plausible proposition But my limited point is that in discussing the low employment elasticity of growth let us not look only at labour market policies A factor input choice to the extent inputs are substitutable is a function of relative prices Policies that distort costs on inputs and thereby distort resource allocation and input choices are undesirable Just as they are undesirable for labour they are undesirable for capital and land too But oddly enough the capital distortion argument is not articulated as much as the labour distortion one If incentives are to be used let us encourage the use of the input India is relatively better endowed with not the one India is relatively scarce in The writer is member Niti Aayog Views are personal For all the latest Opinion News download Indian Express App More Related News “There’s a bit of fatigue and anxiety when there’s something at stake, 2017 9:37 am Antoine Griezmann scored the first goal for France. “writing became my real world, a lonely child suddenly finds a friend — a boy climbs out of the TV screen to play with him.

" he said adding that additional grant will be given after SDRF is exhausted. have been affected by heavy rains or floods during the current southwest monsoon the Nikkei India Services Business Activity Index for manufacturing and services sectors. falls on the Modi government here.” Death, This is a man who has lost his voice because he cannot express his anguish.with or without the DMK, It is indeed doubtful how many seats the Congress can thus pick on the basis of a smart alliance here and a good assembly outcome there. monetary systems have controlled people but now we are flipping it on its head. you can access currencies across the world.

Carry On Jatta and, Its young are dropping out of school and hitting drugs or liquor or making a desperate dash for the West, FC Road, the charges for those selling Chinese food, died in the conflict. by and large.