Getting many quantum states from one experimental setup

first_imgLinear optical setup for the experiment. Credit: Witlef Wieczorek. (PhysOrg.com) — “In the traditional approach to entanglement with linear optics, one designs a new setup for each single state that you want,” Witlef Wieczorek tells PhysOrg.com. “What we’ve done is to make a single setup that allows you to observe lots of different quantum states.” Wieczorek is a scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics in Garching and Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Germany. He is part of a team that not only figured out how it might work to use one linear optics setup for several quantum states, but also demonstrated that such a setup works. His colleagues include Christian Schmid, Nikolai Kiesel, Reinhold Pohlner and Harald Weinfurter at the Max Planck Institute and Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, as well as Otfried Gühne at the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information in Innsbruck, Austria. Their work is reported in Physical Review Letters: “Experimental Observation of an Entire Family of Four-Photon Entangled States.”“It is inefficient to have to keep changing the entire setup for each quantum state,” Wieczorek explains. “But now we’ve shown that you can have one setup, and if you change a parameter, you can get a different quantum state. You no longer have to design a different setup for each state.”Wieczorek and his peers call the states “families” because they are “related” through the experimental setup, and only require the changing of an experimental parameter to get a new state. “We have a group of states that are connected to this one setup.” One of the most exciting things, however, is that this particular family includes five quantum states that are known to have applications in the field of quantum information.“These quantum states are useful for different tasks,” Wieczorek says. “Our one setup produces states that can be used for decoherence-free communication, secret sharing of information, telecloning and getting different kinds of three qubit inequivalent entangled states.” Known states are nice, but Wieczorek and his colleagues also found states not discussed before. While the unknown quantum states in this particular family do not have any known practical application right now, they can contribute to the overall knowledge of entanglement. “We can characterize the family better by studying particular properties, as, for example, entanglement robustness or persistency, of the family of states in more detail. And, who knows? Maybe these unknown states will have applications in the future.”The current work is done with four photon entangled states, but Wieczorek hopes to expand the idea to six photon entangled states. “Next, we want to go for six photons,” he says. “And we have an idea of how we can apply it to the setup.”For the most part, Wieczorek and his peers confined themselves to looking at only a small fraction of states. However, it is possible that any number of states could be achieved. “In principle, you could see a different state for each parameter you change. You could see infinetely many states.” But for now, Wieczorek is happy with the results of what has been accomplished so far. “This makes it easier. We can say we want a state for a particular application, and we just set the parameter. When we’re ready to do something else, all we do is change the parameter.”Copyright 2008 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Getting many quantum states from one experimental setup (2008, July 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-07-quantum-states-experimental-setup.htmllast_img read more

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HP HDX 18t Notebook Is Now Available

first_img The HDX 18t notebook has an ultra-wide 16:9 flush-glass display that supplies 55% better viewing than standard panels, making it easier to see at a distance or present to a group. The Full High Definition display (1920 x 1080) exhibits intense realism while watching HD movies and playing games. With HP’s MediaSmart software you can immerse yourself in high definition with home-theater audio/video quality. You can also watch, record, and view live, streamed, and mobile Internet TV in high definition. MediSmart software will also let you create, edit, and enjoy HD video, music, and photos.Your Home Entertainment will be greatly enhanced by Home-Theater-quality audio with premium 7.1-capable speakers, a triple bass reflex subwoofer, and Dolby-simulated surround sound. With the built-in Blu-ray drive you will experience stunning movies that´s no comparison to the standard DVD player.HDX 18t features: 18.4-inch Full HD 1920X1080p Ultra Brightview Infinity LCD displayFull QWERTY keyboard with number padBlu-ray ROM with DVD SuperMulti DL burnerWiFi 802.11nAltec Lansing speakers and subwooferFingerprint scannerWebcam5-in-1 digital media card readerHDMI 1.3 outputeSATA port4 USB 2.0 portsFirewireYou can choose from the following CPU’s for the HP HDX 18t notebook:Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo Processor P8400 (2.26 GHz) Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo Processor P8600 (2.4 GHz) Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo Processor T9400 (2.53 GHz) Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo Processor T9600 (2.80GHz) Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Quad Processor QX9300 (2.53Hz)The HP HDX 18t Premium series notebooks are available now with a starting price of $1549.99. HP has just recently announced their HDX 18t Premium Series laptop. HP’s HDX 18t is powered by Intel´s latest Core 2 Duo or Core 2 Quad processor. The HDX 18t is equipped with up to 8GB of RAM, NVIDIA GeForce 9600M GT 512MB video card and can accommodate Dual hard drives up to 320GB. Citation: HP HDX 18t Notebook Is Now Available (2008, October 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-10-hp-hdx-18t-notebook.htmlcenter_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Dell Introduces Studio Desktop and Studio Slim Models

first_img Citation: Dell Introduces Studio Desktop and Studio Slim Models (2008, September 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-09-dell-studio-desktop-slim.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Sharp Aquos Crystal phone: Where’s the bezel? Explore further The Studio MT has two 5.25″ external drive bays, one external 3.5″ bay, and two internal 3.5″ drive bays. It also has one PCI-e x16 slot, two PCI-e x1 slots and one PCI slot. The Studio ST has the same expansion capability with the exception of having a single 5.25″ external bay. Both Studio desktops have the following specifications:Intel Core 2 Duo and Core 2 Quad processors up to 8 GB of DDR2 RAM 6 USB 2.0 (4 front, 2 back) ports1 FireWire (IEEE 1394) port (two on the Studio Desktop)S-PDIF output HDMI and VGA output Integrated 7.1 audio Gigabit Ethernet 16-in-1 media card reader (Studio Desktop) 19-in-1 media card reader (Studio Slim) 350W (Studio Desktop) or 250W (Studio Slim) power supplies Optional upgrades for both models include:Discrete ATI graphics Blu-Ray ROM optical drivesTV tuner802.11n wireless connectivity Wireless keyboards and mice 64-bit versions of Windows VistaThe starting price for both systems start at $549.00 and are available right now. Dell has just rounded out its Studio line with its new Studio Desktop (MT) and Studio Slim (ST) models. Dell offers each model with a choice of Core 2 Duo or Core 2 Quad processors, up to 8GB of RAM and integrated 7.1 audio. Dell Studio Slim Model (ST)last_img read more

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Caspian Tiger Extinct But Lives On In Siberian Tiger

first_img Citation: Caspian Tiger Extinct But Lives On In Siberian Tiger (2009, January 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-01-caspian-tiger-extinct-siberian.html The Caspian Tiger,(Panthera tigris virgata) genetic roots span over a million years. A nearly cataclysmic event during the late Pleistocene Era, some 10,000 to 12,000 years ago nearly wiped out all tigers. Fortunately, a small remnant of tigers survived. In 2004 scientists revised the known classification to five tiger subspecies from eight previously identified. The Caspian Tiger and the Amur or Siberian Tiger began in China and spread westward along the Silk Road. Sometime later these magnificent tigers expanded their territory by moving northward and eastward into what is known as the former Soviet Union. Researchers believe that sometime in the early 1900s the Caspian and Siberian tigers intermingled, but were subsequently isolated by hunters. The two majestic Russian cats, the Siberian and Caspian Tigers preferred slightly different terrain. The Siberian Tiger prowled the rich mix forest in the southern Russian Far East region on the Sea of Japan. While the Caspian Tiger inhabited the inland drainage basins of Western and Eastern Asia among the reeds and waterways hunting their prey hidden by lush vegetation. The Caspian Tiger was an exquisite specimen in appearance and size, weighing in a range of 375-530 pounds with an average body length of nearly 10-feet. During the Winter the Caspian Tiger had a lush, thick reddish coat with black or brown stripes set in a close pattern with a silky haired white belly and a beard. The word that best describes the Caspian Tiger, is formidable. Unfortunately, the riverside vegetation was cleared for cultivation and in-habitation, thus the Caspian Tiger was deprived of its habitat and its prey in the 1930s. Cotton fields were planted and the rivers were used for irrigation. Soon, the Caspian Tiger became an alien in its own territory and was targeted and hunted down as a menace to human settlements and a threat to livestock. The Caspian Tiger pelt was prized for its beauty and fetched a hefty price. A further environmental insult occurred when the river vegetation and reeds were cleared to eradicate malaria on the Southern shores of the Caspian Sea in the 1950s and 1960s. The last reported Caspian Tiger sighting happened in the 1960s and 1970s. Russian and international conservation groups banned tiger hunting in 1947, but it was too late for the Caspian Tiger to make a recovery. Poaching and contributing factors wiped out the majestic cat. Conservation efforts did help to protect and stabilize the Siberian Tiger. Fortunately, the subspecies commingling in the distant past will allow the Caspian Tiger to once again take its rightful place in the family tree of tigers.© 2009 PhysOrg.com This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Caspian Tiger. Credit: Berlin Zoo 1899 (PhysOrg.com) — The extraordinary Caspian Tiger became extinct over 40-years ago. Through modern genetic analysis it has been discovered the Caspian Tiger and the Siberian or Amur Tiger still in existence are separated by only one letter of genetic code. The Caspian Tiger can be reestablished by using their relative, the Siberian Tiger. According to John Seidensticker, a tiger conservationist this means the loss of only a part of a subspecies as opposed to the loss of a whole subspecies. In practice, the zoo breeding programs for the Siberian Tiger are largely successful. The benefits of being differentlast_img read more

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Software Thats Resilient Against Hacker Attack

first_img(PhysOrg.com) — A team of researchers headed by Martin Rinard, a professor of computer science at MIT, have developed new software that automatically patches errors in deployed software in a matter of minutes. Image Credit: Technology Review New trojan detected for Microsoft Word PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Play Automatically Patching Errors in Deployed Software, Conference Audio. Via: Technology Review© 2009 PhysOrg.com Explore further The software is called ClearView and is designed to apply patches whenever it detects that something has gone wrong with the program. ClearView operates by monitoring a program’s normal behavior and establishing a set of rules. ClearView looks for certain types of errors that are mostly caused by an attacker introducing malicious code into the operating program. When ClearView detects a software intrusion, it identifies the rule that has been compromised and generates a set of repair patches designed to force the software to follow the compromised rules. ClearView then studies all possibilities to determine which selected rule is the most successful patch. ClearView can be very successful when it is installed on multiple computers running the same software. By ClearView analyzing the malicious code and applying the most effective rule on one machine, it can then apply the patch to all other machines. ClearView applies the patch to the binary code, bypassing the source code which enables it to fix programs without human intervention. ClearView was tested on a group of computers running Firefox and an independent team to launch an attack on the Web browser. The attack team used 10 different attacks to inject malicious code into Firefox. ClearView was successful in all 10 attacks by blocking the malicious code and shutting down the program before its intended attack took effect.ClearView created patches that corrected the errors introduced by the malicious code and discarded any corrections that had a negative effect. ClearView, on average, came up with a working patch within five minutes of its first attack.In a TR interview, Rinard stated: “What this research is leading us to believe is that software isn’t in itself inherently fragile and brittle because of errors. It’s fragile and brittle because people are afraid to let the software continue if they think there’s something wrong with it.” Some software engineering approaches, such as “failure-oblivious computing” or “acceptable computing,” share this philosophy.More information: Automatically Patching Errors in Deployed Software, 22nd ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles. [Paper] [Slides] This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Software That’s Resilient Against Hacker Attack (2009, October 29) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-10-software-resilient-hacker.htmllast_img read more

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Huge solar powered plane takes to the air w Video

first_img More information: Solar Impulse: www.solarimpulse.com (PhysOrg.com) — A huge airplane using solar cells as its only power source is being tested in Switzerland. In its first successful test flight last December, the plane flew only 350 meters at a height of just one meter above the ground, but by mid 2010 it is expected to make a non-stop test flight of 36 hours, and to make the first ever night flights by a plane powered only by solar panels. Test pilot Markus Scherdel will carry out the first test flights to confirm the plane can be controlled, and to test its behavior in the air. Risks are being minimized by a team of air controllers, meteorologists and other specialists, but the tests are unavoidably difficult and risky because the behavior in the air of such a lightweight but large plane is completely unknown. After these tests two of the promoters, André Borschberg and Bertrand Piccard, will also fly the plane to familiarize themselves with the aircraft. Bertrand Piccard was the first to circle the globe non-stop in a balloon, beating Virgin founder Sir Richard Branson in the quest.A larger plane, the HB-SIB, with a wingspan of 80 meters, is planned for either 2011 or 2012, and will aim to circumnavigate the globe in 2013 using only solar power. The trip is expected to take up to 25 days and include five stops. Citation: Huge solar powered plane takes to the air (w/ Video) (2010, April 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-04-huge-solar-powered-plane-air.html The single-seater plane, the HB-SIA, was built by Solar Impulse SA of Switzerland after a successful prototype was launched by adventurer Betrand Piccard in 2003. The wingspan of the HB-SIA (63.4 m) is almost as wide as a Boeing 747 or Airbus A340 wingspan, and it is 21.85 meters long and 6.4 meters high. Unlike a Boeing 747, which has a maximum takeoff weight of over 333 tonne, the HB-SIA tips the scales at only 1.6 tonne. The construction includes a customized honeycomb sandwich structure made of carbon fiber to keep the weight as low as possible. Pioneering solar-powered plane makes airborne hop This is a December 2009 test. The plane is powered by four electric engines, with electricity provided by 11,628 SunPower Corporation photovoltaic (PV) cells mounted on the wings and horizontal tail area, giving a coverage of 200 square meters. The cells are 150 micrometers thick and have a conversion efficiency of 22%. The average output of the engines is 6 kW (maximum 7.5 kW, or 10 hp), which is around the same as the power used by the Wright Flyer flown by Wilbur and Orville Wright in 1903. The average flight speed of the HB-SIA is only 70 kilometers per hour.To enable the plane to fly at night, the electricity generated by the PV cells is stored in a series of lithium polymer rechargeable batteries, weighing a total of 0.4 tonne. The energy density of the batteries is around 220 Wh/kg. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. HB-SIA / Solar Impulse © 2010 PhysOrg.comlast_img read more

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HP slams sensational reports about LaserJet printer hack vulnerability

first_img Citation: HP slams ‘sensational’ reports about LaserJet printer hack vulnerability (2011, November 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-11-hp-slams-sensational-laserjet-printers.html Explore further As some observers explain the situation, we are in a computer equipment stage of embedded systems in printers, packed with Internet-connecting functions that make them operate more like computers.Rewriting the printer’s firmware takes only about 30 seconds, according to researcher Ang Cui, and a virus would be virtually impossible to detect once installed. Only pulling the computer chips out of the printer to test them would confirm an attack, Cui said. Every time a vulnerable printer accepts a print job, it scans that job to see if it includes a firmware update. Older printers do not discriminate the source of the update; hackers can in turn intercept requests and plant their own updates. As one blogger described the potential mischief, the printer can be told to erase its software and hackers can install a “booby trapped” version.The Columbia team sent standard print commands from a Mac and a PC running Linux and succeeded in tricking an HP printer into reprogramming itself.The researchers have been working on the printer security project under grants from government and industry, according to reports, and they described the flaw in a private briefing for federal agencies. They also reported their findings to Hewlett-Packard.Columbia professor Salvatore Stolfo, who directed the research in the Computer Science Department of Columbia University’s School of Engineering and Applied Science, said that these devices are completely open and available to be exploited. He and his team have been forceful in describing this as a serious matter for attention, involving a vulnerability that could impact millions of printers and other hardware.In contrast, HP initially took a cautious view in response. Keith Moore, chief technologist for HP’s printer division, had said HP takes the Columbia findings seriously but initial research suggested vulnerability was low. He pointed out that the models tested were older models, and he would generally disagree that the threat is widespread. He said the company was reviewing the issue. But in a hard-hitting statement issued Tuesday, HP said, “Today there has been sensational and inaccurate reporting regarding a potential security vulnerability with some HP LaserJet printers. No customer has reported unauthorized access. Speculation regarding potential for devices to catch fire due to a firmware change is false.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (PhysOrg.com) — Columbia University researchers have demonstrated how hackers can use printers not only to infect computer systems and steal information but to set printers on fire. Their claims were made this week in a demo at Columbia University’s Intrusion Detection Systems Laboratory for msnbc. They report a security flaw in Hewlett-Packard (HP) printers open for exploit. While their experiments were only on HP printers, they said that they are just starting to sample other manufacturers’ printers too. center_img © 2011 PhysOrg.com More information: msnbcmedia.msn.com/i/msnbc/sec … _printersecurity.pdf HP to Launch Printer Management Tool Designed for SMBslast_img read more

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Moltenair batterys storage capacity among the highest of any battery type

first_img The researchers, Stuart Licht, Baochen Cui, Jessica Stuart, Baohui Wang, and Jason Lau, at George Washington University, have published a paper on the new molten-air battery in a recent issue of Energy & Environmental Science.”This is the first time that a rechargeable molten-air battery has been demonstrated,” Licht told Phys.org. “There have been rechargeable batteries that use molten electrolytes, but not air. For example, molten-sulfur batteries have been widely studied for electric car and grid applications. However, sulfur is twice as massive as oxygen (per electron stored) and its mass needs to be carried as part of the battery (whereas air is freely available). The molten-air batteries are the first rechargeable batteries to use a molten salt to store energy using ‘free’ oxygen from the air and multi-electron storage molecules.”This ability to store multiple electrons in a single molecule is one of the biggest advantages of the molten-air battery. By their nature, multiple-electron-per-molecule batteries usually have higher storage capacities compared to single-electron-per-molecule batteries, such as Li-ion batteries. The battery with the highest energy capacity to date, the vanadium boride (VB2)-air battery, can store 11 electrons per molecule. However, the VB2-air battery and many other high-capacity batteries have a serious drawback: they are not rechargeable.Here, the researchers demonstrated that molten-air batteries offer a combination of high storage capacity and reversibility. The molten-air battery uses oxygen from the air as the cathode material, giving it the benefit of not having to carry this weight. It also has the advantage of not using any exotic catalysts or membranes. Different versions of the battery use different electrolytes, but they are all molten, i.e., melted to a liquid by a high temperature, in this case around 700-800 °C. The researchers experimented with using iron, carbon, and VB2 as the molten electrolyte, demonstrating very high capacities of 10,000, 19,000, and 27,000 Wh/l, respectively. The capacities are influenced by the number of electrons that each type of molecule can store: 3 electrons for iron, 4 electrons for carbon, and 11 electrons for VB2. In comparison, the Li-air battery has an energy capacity of 6,200 Wh/l, due to its single-electron-per-molecule transfer and lower density than the other compositions. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2013 Phys.org. All rights reserved. Explore further Citation: Molten-air battery’s storage capacity among the highest of any battery type (2013, September 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-09-molten-air-battery-storage-capacity-highest.html More information: Stuart Licht, et al. “Molten Air – A new, highest energy class of rechargeable batteries.” Energy & Environmental Science. DOI: 10.1039/C3EE42654HAlso at arXiv:1307.1305 [physics.chem-ph] http://arxiv.org/abs/1307.1305 Journal information: Energy & Environmental Science High-efficiency zinc-air battery developed The researchers explain that they were able to make the battery reversible by using an unusual electrolytic splitting process to function as battery “charging.” For example, when the iron molten-air battery is discharged, the iron mixes with the oxygen to produce iron oxide. To charge the battery, the iron oxide is converted back into iron metal, and O2 is released into the air. The carbon and VB2 molten-air batteries recharge in a similar way, although the electrochemical properties of VB2 are not as well understood as the others. As Licht explained, the molten electrolyte is a key to making the battery rechargeable. “In the case of molten-air batteries, the molten electrolyte opens a pathway to recharge a wide variety of high-capacity multi-electron storage materials,” he said. “These materials, while highest in capacity, are a challenge to recharge (how do you reinsert 11 electrons back into each molecule of vanadium boride?). The molten electrolyte provides an effective media that is compatible with both recharging these materials and ‘free’ oxygen from the air for storage. The high activity of molten electrolytes allows this charging to occur.”While the molten-air battery’s high capacity and reversibility make it an attractive candidate for future energy storage applications, the researchers are continuing to improve other areas of the battery. For example, they plan to investigate other types of molten electrolytes with lower melting temperatures, increasing the voltage (a major contributor to power density and, for electric vehicles, maximum speed), and improving the energy efficiency. “High temperature for a battery is unusual,” Licht said. “However, it is not an impediment. Lower capacity, high-temperature molten electrolyte sulfur batteries have already been tested without incident in electric vehicles. No weak spot has yet appeared. The discharge current of the molten-air electrode is sufficient to yield high battery voltages, but as described in the study could be even greater when a higher surface area between the cycled air and the molten salt will be achieved.” This chart compares the characteristics of molten-air batteries that use three different types of materials. Credit: Licht, et al. ©2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry (Phys.org) —Researchers have demonstrated a new class of high-energy battery, called a “molten-air battery,” that has one of the highest storage capacities of any battery type to date. Unlike some other high-energy batteries, the molten-air battery has the advantage of being rechargeable. Although the molten electrolyte currently requires high-temperature operation, the battery is so new that the researchers hope that experimenting with different molten compositions and other characteristics will make molten-air batteries strong competitors in electric vehicles and for storing energy for the electric grid.last_img read more

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Researchers isolate compounds and esters given off by dying humans

first_img © 2015 Phys.org Most people have heard of what is commonly known as “the smell of death” though the phrase is also used to describe people near to dying. Still, human beings undoubtedly give off a unique chemical cocktail after they die—one that dogs can identify using only their noses. Scientists have wondered for many years about the nature of that cocktail and have more recently begun to conduct studies to determine if its exact makeup could be found. In this new effort, the team in Belgium believes it has done just that.To separate the chemicals emitted from humans during decomposition, from other animals, the team gathered animal (frog, pig, mouse, rabbit, mole, turtle, fish and bird remains) and human parts and put them in separate chambers where they could be studied with a gas chromatograph over a period of six months. That led to the identification of 452 unique compounds— principle component analysis showed that just eight of those compounds were distinct to humans and pigs (a close physiological sample). Closer examination of just the pig and human remains revealed five esters (organic compounds typically found in fats and oils, some of which are what humans smell when fruit is rotting) that were unique to just humans. The researchers suggest that their results might be used to assist in training search dogs, or even perhaps in building a machine able to detect the smell of decaying human bodies, which could then be put into search robots. They acknowledge that more work still needs to be done because their study included only body parts—some tissue and organs—it is possible that a whole human body emits more compounds than just those parts studied, particularly parts associated with the gut. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers at the University of Leuven in Belgium has succeeded in identifying the unique group of compounds and esters that are given off by the human body as it decomposes. In their paper posted in the journal PLoS ONE, the team describes the study they carried out using actual human remains, what they found and their hopes that their findings can be used in future forensic and search efforts. Credit: Cristie Guevara/public domain Research shows value of cadaver dogs locating underwater corpses More information: Rosier E, Loix S, Develter W, Van de Voorde W, Tytgat J, Cuypers E (2015) The Search for a Volatile Human Specific Marker in the Decomposition Process. PLoS ONE 10(9): e0137341. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0137341AbstractIn this study, a validated method using a thermal desorber combined with a gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometry was used to identify the volatile organic compounds released during decomposition of 6 human and 26 animal remains in a laboratory environment during a period of 6 months. 452 compounds were identified. Among them a human specific marker was sought using principle component analysis. We found a combination of 8 compounds (ethyl propionate, propyl propionate, propyl butyrate, ethyl pentanoate, pyridine, diethyl disulfide, methyl(methylthio)ethyl disulfide and 3-methylthio-1-propanol) that led to the distinction of human and pig remains from other animal remains. Furthermore, it was possible to separate the pig remains from human remains based on 5 esters (3-methylbutyl pentanoate, 3-methylbutyl 3-methylbutyrate, 3-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate, butyl pentanoate and propyl hexanoate). Further research in the field with full bodies has to corroborate these results and search for one or more human specific markers. These markers would allow a more efficiently training of cadaver dogs or portable detection devices could be developed.center_img Explore further Journal information: PLoS ONE Citation: Researchers isolate compounds and esters given off by dying humans (2015, September 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-09-isolate-compounds-esters-dying-humans.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Alienated society finds space on canvas

first_imgSelected works of eminent artists like K Laxma Goud, Ganesh Pyne, Jogen Chowdhury, Ram Kumar and Satish Gujral are exhibited in the capital which have drawn inspiration from ‘alienated’ or marginalised section of the society.Curated by Kolkata-based art expert and historian Arun Ghose, the art pieces showcased at the exhibition, focus on re-definition of modernity in this era of globalisation and address crucial issues such as cultural translations and time-space crossings. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Situationism, the title is derived from Karl Marx’s ‘theory of alienation’ which describes the separation of things that naturally belong together but are alienated.For Kolkata-based curator Arun Ghose, the term ‘alienation’ was apt to reflect what is still prevalent in our society – discrimination and indifference towards a certain section of the society. ‘Art is a reflection of the society and what these works define is an outlook these artists have towards the society. They were associated and connected with it, and taking inspiration from what was happening and drawing it on canvas,’ Ghose said in an interview. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix‘But it seems the younger generation is alienated towards this section, which needs attention. I tried to compile something that will give a faint idea of how art and society co-exist together,’ he added.This is why melancholy is a metaphor in all the works on display, drawn on canvas using medium of oil, sketches or paint. The grim lines or the faces of people in these painting bear the sign of indifference, or perhaps unfulfillment.Even Goud’s colourful sketches of folk and tribal people and Chowdhury’s close-up sketches of women give out sadness and pain.Ghose feels this exhibition is psycho-analysis of society. ‘I have tried to portray two extreme spectrums, and each artist’s paintings come together on the storyboard forming a narration. It can be interpreted in many ways,’ he said.last_img read more

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Grooving to Korean pop

first_imgKorean Cultural Centre, announced the globally popular music phenomenon, K-POP 2015 Concert Tour in India. With the collaboration of JU Entertainment and all the festival organizers in three regions of India, Ahmedabad, Chennai and Guwahati, the upcoming edition of K-POP Concert Tour will be the first of its kind in the country. There will be  a fan signing meet and performance in the national capital on January 31 at the Korean Cultural Centre.K-POP is the popular music genre from South Korea, consisting of dance-pop, pop ballad, electronic, rock, hip-hop, R&B, etc. The K-POP musical movement started in Korea in 1990s and has swept the world through the ‘Korean Wave’. Today, K-POP has entrenched itself as a bona fide phenomenon in Asia and is rapidly extending its reach to new markets. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’One of Korea’s new and upcoming K-POP bands, N-Sonic had attended the K-POP Audition held in India last year as judges and their presence had created a buzz like none other. Announcing the concerts, Kim Kum-pyoung, Director, Korean Cultural Center, said, “On the cultural front, K-POP as a juggernaut of Korean soft-power is something we were very keen on introducing in India. What better place to unveil the first ever K-Pop concert than at cultural fests of the top schools of India.”When: January 31 Where: Korean Cultural Centre, Near Moolchand Metro Stationlast_img read more

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Sanskrit College and University to introduce evening certificate course on Sanskrit

first_imgKolkata: The Sanskrit College and University (SCU) will introduce evening certificate course on Sanskrit from the current academic year. The decision has been taken in the wake of huge demand from people particularly from elderly persons and housewives to study Sanskrit during their pass time.”Requests for starting such a course has been pouring in particularly from retired persons including bureaucrats who have not been able to study Sanskrit during their working tenures. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsWe have been receiving them for over a month while some people have also met me personally and requested me to make arrangements for such a course on weekends. So, we have decided to introduce a six month certificate elementary course on Sanskrit language,” Registrar of SCU, Arundhati Mukhopadhyay said.As per plans of SCU, classes will be held twice or thrice a week with a duration of around 90 minutes. The syllabus committee has already met thrice and the course modalities will be prepared soon. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe University authorities are trying to make the course interesting by integrating audio and visual elements with classes on lecture. The admission process for the certificate course is expected to start from the month of June and several people who had visited the varsity had registered their names along with their contact numbers in advance. “We have now stopped taking calls from people who are evincing their interest in this certificate course,” a senior official of SCU said adding that they have plans to commence the course with 50 persons. The University will start with the elementary course and has plans to commence an advanced course within a year. “We will start with the existing faculty and if they feel pressurised with their added workload, we are ready to hire faculties from other institutions too,” the official said.It may be mentioned that the transformation of Sanskrit College to The Sanskrit College and University was done by the Mamata Banerjee government through a legislative act of 2015 and it was only in June 2016 when it started its journey as a university. SCU presently has graduation and post-graduation courses in as many as 8 subjects with a student strength of around 400.last_img read more

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Blame it on the proverbial foreign hand

first_imgTHE most powerful, though never sighted, political unifier in India is back: the foreign hand. The National Democratic Alliance government recently went after the Ford Foundation for funding “political” and “disruptive” activities. And hardly a few hours after the announcement, it cancelled the registration of nearly 9,000 non-government organisations (NGOs) for violating the rules governing foreign funds. At the same time, it stopped a Greenpeace activist from flying abroad to make a presentation on how a community is fighting a coal mine project in the country. Also Read – Gateway of criminal justicePursuing this obsession, the Union Environment Minister has publicly said that the recent focus on air pollution in Delhi is part of a “design” to malign the country. The Union minister cited a “foreign hand” because the air pollution data came from machines installed at an embassy. He has questioned why nobody talked about air pollution in the capital in the past 10 years. It is another matter that hardly a day goes by without the newspapers carrying a story on Delhi’s alarming air pollution. Also Read – Turning a blind eyeThis is not the first government that is obsessed with the foreign hand theory. Former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, attributed “foreign hand” to the anti-nuclear campaigns. And when his government was shrouded with corruption charges that led to its miserable fall in the general elections next year, Singh’s key ministers questioned civil society groups and their intentions citing foreign funds. This was surprising because there was a period when the government was seen as “NGO-wallas” due to its leadership’s engaging relationship with civil society. Equally surprising is the current government’s actions against NGOs and donors because, as stated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his ministers, its focus is on salvaging the image of the country in the international arena. Then why would the government risk going after a US charity that has the potential of diplomatic fallout? The Ford Foundation has also helped implement many government schemes, including a few flagship schemes in Gujarat, when Modi was its chief minister.This is where the larger question of intent comes. The Union government took action against Ford Foundation after the Gujarat government complained that the foundation supported a few activists who were campaigning against the state’s involvement in the 2002 communal riots. Similarly, the NGOs that were forced to shut shop were mostly opposing mining and industry projects and fighting for the legitimate rights of communities.The political leadership wants to polarise the development discourse in the country by hitting out at any NGO that is protesting development projects. And the leadership seems to be successful as whenever genuine environmental concerns are raised, it automatically ends in a debate over development v environment. At a time when the middle class is calling the political shots, development has taken precedence over the environment. The growth rate has to be revived and the government has conveniently made us believe that the growth is not happening because of opposition to projects on environmental concerns. A polarised discourse is easy to manage, at least while dealing with daily anti-government headlines, according to former BJP minister Arun Shourie. The current leadership believes it will be able to salvage its image through this. But the point it misses is that polarisation is an enemy in the long-term. The government might be able to slow down NGOs but what will it do when people come out on the streets to protect their rights. That is a much bigger and difficult headline to manage. DOWN TO EARTHlast_img read more

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Delhi ACB reopens 2002 CNG fitness scam case Sources

first_imgIn a significant move, Anti-Corruption Branch (ACB) of government of Delhi has “reopened” the alleged 2002 CNG fitness scam of Rs 100 crore in which three top officials of Sheila Dikshit government were under scanner.“The ACB is reopening the 2002 CNG Fitness Scam in which top three babus, who had worked under Sheila Dikshit government, are under scanner,” top government sources said.They said that ACB had registered a case in 2012 into the alleged 2002 CNG Fitness scam which runs into Rs 100 crore. Also Read – Need to understand why law graduate’s natural choice is not legal profession: CJI“During the AAP’s previous 49-day stint, Arvind Kejriwal had said that all documents would be provided to CBI after the probe agency sought some documents pertaining to the scam. But, the case probe got stuck as Kejriwal government resigned,” they said, adding that as elected government is now in place in the capital, ACB would probe the matter thoroughly.The sources claimed that the probe was stalled due to inability to get permission to question the officials. Also Read – Health remains key challenge in India’s development: KovindThe Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) had, in December last year, raked up the issue of the CNG fitness scam of 2002 and attacked the “continuing silence” of the Central government and Delhi Lieutenant Governor Najeeb Jung on the alleged indictment of top bureaucrats in the city government by CBI.Senior party leader Ashutosh had said that CBI in its report has stated that the case was originally investigated by the Delhi Anti-Corruption Branch, which has names of several senior bureaucrats of Delhi administration.The probe in the Rs 100-crore scam had hit a roadblock when ACB stated that it did not receive the case details to begin the probe. However, the agency is now ready to reopen the case.Commenting on Kejriwal government’s decision to pursue the 13-year-old case, Congress leader PC Chacko said the AAP government was playing vendetta politics.last_img read more

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How to protect your shoes in winter

first_imgThe winter season calls for added attention to shoes. Basic stuff like infusing shoe wax or using protective spray can add life to your favourite pairs, says an expert.Barun Prabhakar, deputy general manager, Design and Digital Marketing of Red Chief, shares his inputs on how to protect your shows from damage in winter..  When the winter season hits the priority is your shoes, The last thing you would want is to walk in cold feet. You can protect your shoes by applying protective spray on the exteriors Clean the shoes immediately once you are back to prevent the moisture from settling. Use a horse hair brush or an old newspaper for this Don’t forget to infuse shoe wax to bring back the glow on your leather shoes, In case you are not using the shoe more then a week, cover it with a hard paper or a box To wipe away salty stains, use vinegar solution and rub with a cotton ball Your feet too should be cleaned up before you wear your since moisture can give rise to moulds inside the shoes Never dry your shoes with a heater or radiator when slightly wet as this will create cracks.last_img read more

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A stroll in the honour of art

first_imgA creative hand has the ability to build some of the finest pieces of beauty, while only a blessed soul has the eye to appreciate beauty even in the smallest things. Culture and art, as the two words are used together, complement each other to create a story. The Leela Palace, New Delhi is one such destination for art enthusiasts to rejoice. In an attempt to preserve the Indian culture, the palace has specially curated paintings, sculptures and other artifacts in tune with the interiors. Walking in, you’d be greeted by melodious Indian classical music accompanied with the fragrance from fresh flowers all around soothing your senses. To take a close look at the art works in order to admire them, one would need about an hour to tour around the palace. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfIn the central courtyard, overlooking the main lobby, stands an auspicious panch-dhatu statue titled ‘Devi’, a combination of different energies of the Goddess in Hindu mythology. Sculpted by Satish Gupta, it is the major attraction of the art walk in regard to worship and respect Mother Supreme. Two major walls in the central courtyard are adorned by Satish Gupta’s set of murals titled ‘Let a thousand lotuses bloom’ which symbolise purity, knowledge and wisdom. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveA couple of sculptures titled ‘Devotees’ by Satish Gujral are placed in the Lobby and the Ballroom Promenades, along with JJ Valaya’s ‘Paisley Cashmere’. The latter’s ‘Jewels of Alika’ is also a piece of art to look forward to in the Club Lounge. Lita Alburquerque’s quest to express the spiritual through material can be witnessed in her work titled ‘Solar Magnitude’ which constitute nine panels with the center panel being a monochromatic blue circle. Climbing up to the first floor, one would be greeted by Subhash Awchat’s ‘Parampara’. A painting titled ‘Memories Revisited’ by Sanjay Bhatt suits the business centre passage’s aura aptly as it portrays two faces conversing behind semi-closed doors. ‘Eternity’ and ‘Face of Life’, by Paresh Maity are worth adoring as they expand a range of possibilities of the figures painted.Espa, the spa in the hotel, is home to a series of paintings by Seema Kohli, which have innumerable stories in them, and Shipra Bhattacharya whose paintings celebrate womanhood.Gujral’s painting ‘Harnessing Artist’ depicts power symbolised by the horse form that is reduced to its essential and is being harnessed by human force. A sculpture from the ‘Mood Series’ by Dimpy Menon, portray a comfortable togetherness between the two figures placed at the Club Lounge.The palace has various genres of art in store, therefore in order to brush up your knowledge about art and culture take some time out from your busy schedule to soak in the beauty of a rare and diverse collection of contemporary Indian art. To experience them in person, visit the palace at the earliest and be guided by the hosts in the art walk thereafter sitting in the lobby over some tea and delicious pastries brooding about the exclusive walk. This luxury of experiencing the art walk touring the Leela Palace followed by hi-tea, can be availed for Rs 2500.last_img read more

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Life lessons with Boman Irani

first_imgBoman Irani, cine and theatre actor, the voice creative person and artist who is a wide proverbial for his comedic and villain roles in Bollywood films like Don, Munna Bhai MBBS, 3 Idiots, Happy New year, PK and Dilwale is emotional, loyal and cuddly. Started his life as a waiter, went on to becoming a photographer, did theatre and finally made his debut in Bollywood at the age of 44 with Raju Hirani’s Munna Bhai M.B.B.S says it is not where you start that’s important, it is where you end up . Also Read – Add new books to your shelf”Success without failure has no excitement in life, I do believe in luck but when it comes to getting a break in the film industry, hard work does matter. That makes me believe that if a person is hard working, knows exactly what it takes to be an actor, I think he or she will make it at some point in life,” said famous bollywood star Boman Irani while speaking at the well attended interactive session on “The Journey: Life, Learning and Leadership Lessons” organised by FICCI Ladies Organisation (FLO). Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThe 55-year-old actor, who made his Bollywood debut with filmmaker Rajkumar Hirani’s Munna Bhai M.B.B.S. at the age of 44, says “it wasn’t hard for me to get a film, but I struggled during the years before I made foray in movies. It takes a lifetime of hard work to get there, so the struggle had already happened. I had kind of paid my dues doing 14 years of theatre. When I got ‘Munna Bhai M.B.B.S.’, I was so taken up by the story and I met Rajkumar Hirani for the first time and I said, ‘This is a guy I’d like to work with’.” “So getting a film was not as difficult as the years I’d spent before it as a photographer or as a theatre actor and before that as a shopkeeper. So it wasn’t much of a struggle, but the struggle of life was very much there for 44 years,” he quipped. “I seem to enjoy every single day on the set. There are some roles that you might get for creative and artistic satisfaction, some might get you a great amount of box office success, but frankly, that doesn’t move me much. Even as my waiter job in Taj Mahal Hotel, Mumbai, I put my heart in it as my granny used to say ‘be the best what ever you do this has stayed with me always, said the actor, who has featured in movies like, Well Done Abba, Don – The Chase Begins and Happy New Year.” “I am an ethically strict person and take pride in my loyalty. I am emotional and can show my emotions stupidly. I work hard, but can be lazy. I am not ambitious or competitive at all, but I’d like to fulfill some of my dreams. I want to do some films where I can sit with my grandchildren and say, ‘The old man did this.’ Potentially, I feel there is more and I have not done that yet. I would love to do theatre again.” He said .FLO President,Vasvi Bharat Ram speaking on the occasion said, “FLO is the most apt platform to connect, learn and grow. We recognise the success stories of true achievers and provide a platform for the members to be inspired by them. This programme was an excellent opportunity to be motivated by the inspiring success story of Boman Irani and learn about his journey to success. The real life story of a great actor’s journey from an entirely different field is that of a dream, achieved through grit, determination and perseverance. FLO salutes his indomitable spirit and unsurpassed courage.”A man of great talents, Boman has truly scripted his own destiny and reached the zenith of accomplishment as a successful actor and carved a niche for himself in the theatre world and Bollywood. As a part of its activities, FLO brings together achievers from various arenas for interactive sessions on breaking through challenges and innovating change to achieve success. Boman Irani is an inspirational leader and a role model for not only actors by youth in general. The interactive session was an opportunity for the members to pick up tips, advice and ideas for success and innovation.Boman Irani is a graduate of Mithibai College in Mumbai. After his polytechnic diploma course, he joined the Taj Mahal Palace and Tower and worked there as a waiter and room service staff. Thereafter, he joined his mother to run their ancestral bakery shop between Novelty and Apsara Cinema in South Mumbai. Irani turned to photography in 1987 and continued until he became an actor.last_img read more

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Eating chocolate may provide relief from bowel disease

first_imgConsuming protein rich foods such as nuts, eggs, seeds, beans, poultry, yogurt, cheese and even chocolates may foster a more tolerant and less inflammatory gut environment, which could mean relief for people living with abdominal pain and diarrhoea of inflammatory bowel disease, a study has said. These food items contain an appreciable amount of tryptophan – an amino acid used in the buildup of proteins – which when fed on mice led to the development of immune cells that foster a tolerant gut, the study said. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfThe findings indicated that a protein rich diet triggers the appearance of immune cells in Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) – a bacterium that normally lives in the gut, and together these promote a more tolerant, less inflammatory gut immune system.”We established a link between one bacterial species – Lactobacillus reuteri — that is a normal part of the gut microbiome, and development of a population of cells that promote tolerance,” said Marco Colonna, the Robert Rock Belliveau, Professor at the Washington University School of Medicine in St.Louis. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsive”The more tryptophan the mice had in their diet, the more of these immune cells they had,” Belliveau added.For the study, published in the journal Science, the team examined mice that had lived under sterile conditions since birth and was germ-free.When L. reuteri was introduced to these mice, the immune cells arose. Further, when tryptophan was doubled in the mice’s feed, the number of such cells rose by about 50 per cent.Humans have the same tolerance-promoting cells as mice, and have L. reuteri in the gastrointestinal tracts.”The development of these cells is probably something we want to encourage since these cells control inflammation on the inner surface of the intestines,” explained Luisa Cervantes-Barragan, Postdoctoral researcher from the varsity.”High levels of tryptophan in the presence of L. reuteri may induce expansion of this population,” Cervantes-Barragan said.last_img read more

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First phase rerun EC removes Malda SP 3 days before polls

first_imgKolkata: The Election Commission on Saturday removed Malda Superintendent of Police Arnab Ghosh and resisted him from performing any poll duty. Ajoy Prasad, commandant of the State Armed Police (Second Battalion), was asked to take charge of the district, latest by 10 am on Sunday.The five Lok Sabha constituencies of Malda North, Malda South, Balurghat, Jangipur and Murshidabad will be going to polls on Tuesday, April 23. Incidentally, the Malda SP happens to be the sixth IPS officer to be removed, including the Commissioners of Kolkata Police and Bidhannagar City Police, after the announcement of polls. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataThe removal of Ghosh barely three days before the polls in the district is reminiscent of a similar move by the EC just two days before the first phase of polls, when Cooch Behar SP Avishek Gupta was removed. Sources in the Commission said that BJP had raised allegation against Ghosh because he was just two months short of the ECI mandated ‘three years term in the same post’. Incidentally, in 2016 Ghosh – the then SP of South Dinajpur, was removed before the Assembly polls. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in statePrasad, who is taking charge of Malda, is a 2010 batch IPS officer and had served as Special Superintendent in the state Criminal Investigation Department (CID). Meanwhile, it has been learnt that the Commission is satisfied with the scrutiny of the first phase of polls in Cooch Behar and will write to the EC for holding re-poll in only one booth at Sitalkuchi in Cooch Behar. The BJP has demanded re-poll for 350 booths in Cooch Behar but the Commission, after two rounds of scrutiny, has disagreed. Meanwhile, Special Observer for Bengal Ajoy V Nayak said on Saturday that the condition of Bengal is similar to that of Bihar 10-15 years ago. “This is not good for democracy. The people and the political parties of Bihar had understood that the situation could not continue and so there was a change,” he said. When asked about the deployment of force, the Special Observer who was instrumental in conducting the 2015 Bihar election successfully, said: “At present we have a force that is enough to cover more than 92 percent of the booths. We have a target of making it 100 percent. But this not good for a healthy democratic situation,” he added.last_img read more

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Turns out the Irish have more Viking in them than Previously Thought

first_imgAn Irish Viking. The concept has become more real and more captivating. Anyone who’s read even a bit about the history of the Vikings knows that their DNA is likely to be found in people living in the British Isles today. New research shows that the Irish definitely have their fair share of Viking heritage–in fact, the Irish are more genetically diverse than most people may assume. The Irish have Viking and Norman ancestry in similar proportions to the English. A comprehensive DNA map of the Irish has for the first time revealed lasting contributions from British, Scandinavian, and French invasions.“By comparing 1,000 Irish genomes with over 6,000 genomes from Britain and mainland Europe, genetic clusters within the west of Ireland, in particular, were discovered for the first time, leading the researchers to investigate if invasions from the Vikings and Normans to the east may have influenced genetics in that part of the country,” according to Irish Central.Map of Ireland in 950 showing Viking influence and Viking territory (in green)Because of extensive Irish immigration to the United States and other countries, these findings have ramifications. There are 80 million people in the world who claim Irish heritage.  “This subtle genetic structure within such a small country has implications for medical genetic association studies,” said Trinity College Dublin geneticist Dr. Ross Byrne. In fact a number of American slang words have roots coming from the Irish:Researchers found 23 distinct genetic clusters, separated by geography by comparing mutations from almost 1,000 Irish genomes with over 6,000 from Britain and mainland Europe. “These are most distinct in western Ireland, but less pronounced in the east, where historical migrations have erased the genetic variations,” said the Irish Mirror.Ireland in 1300 showing lands held by native Irish (green) and lands held by Normans (pale)The researchers studied genes from Europe and calculated the timing of the historical migrations of the Norse-Vikings and the Anglo-Normans to Ireland, yielding dates consistent with historical records.The Vikings invaded Ireland for the first time in the 8th century, raiding a monastery on Rathlin Island on the northeast coast. The Viking warriors were large in numbers and well armed. They moved inland along river-ways, attacking the monastic settlements they came across. They also took captives to trade as slaves.Ireland in 1450 showing lands held by native Irish (green), the Anglo-Irish (blue) and the English king (dark grey)The Vikings in Ireland built wintering camps, known as longphorts (derived from the Irish words boat & fort), a ship port. This meant they could settle on the island longer. They used their longphorts as a base allowing them to perform further in-land raids.Although longphorts were mainly built to only last one winter, some of them became major settlements, such as the one in Dublin, Dyflinn, founded in 841 AD.  Excavations during the 1970’s discovered more than 100 homes from this early period and thousands of daily household objects in Dublin.Related Video:The Viking conquest in Ireland would continue for more than 200 years, until the arrival of the Anglo-Normans. In the late 12th century, the Norman lords who had already subjugated England came to Ireland to take large plots of land. In the 16th century, under Elizabeth I, many more English Protestant families arrived, often displacing the native Catholics.It’s believed that the first group of Vikings to invade Ireland were from Scandinavia. They had also settled in Scotland and would later became known as Gallowglass, an elite mercenary warrior group. From the mid-13th to the early 17th centuries they fought for hire in Ireland itself. Their name is an Anglicization of the Gaelic word gallóglach (roughly pronounced GAHL-o-glukh), which translates as “foreign warrior.”Related Article: The Key Role Vikings Played in the History of Ireland Gallowglass are descendants of not only Vikings but of Scots native to the western Highlands and Hebrides. As Scottish historian Fergus Cannan notes, the Gallowglass “lived for war.…His sole function was to fight, and his only contribution to society was destruction.” Nancy Bilyeau, a former staff editor at Entertainment Weekly, Rolling Stone, and InStyle, has written a trilogy of historical thrillers for Touchstone Books. Her new book, The Blue, is a spy story set in the 18th-century porcelain world. For more information, go to www.nancybilyeau.comlast_img read more

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